Solar panels are devices that use solar energy to generate electricity through the photovoltaic effect.

The use of solar panels has many advantages: reducing electricity costs, reducing dependence on traditional energy sources, reducing emissions of harmful gases, and contributing to sustainability and environmental protection.

The production capacity of solar panels depends on their size, efficiency, and geographical location. Solar panels installed on household roofs can produce enough electricity to meet the required needs or even more.

Most solar panels have a warranty period of 25 to 30 years, but they can last even longer. Regular maintenance and monitoring of their performance are important to ensure their longevity.

Solar panels are suitable for various types of homes and business premises. However, factors such as roof space, orientation, tilt, and shading can affect system efficiency. It is recommended to consult with an expert to assess suitability for a specific location.

Solar panels require minimal maintenance. Regular cleaning to remove dust and dirt, checking performance, and occasionally removing snow or leaves from the panels may be necessary. However, the panels themselves are typically durable and require little maintenance.

A solar inverter is a device that converts the direct current (DC) electricity generated by solar panels into alternating current (AC) electricity that can be used in households or distributed into the power grid.

There are three main types of solar inverters: central (string) inverters, microinverters, and hybrid inverters. Each of them has its own advantages and applications.

When selecting a solar inverter, it is important to consider factors such as the size of the solar system, type of solar panels, energy needs, budget, and desired functionality.

The warranty period for a solar inverter can vary, but most reputable manufacturers offer warranties ranging from 5 to 10 years. Additionally, there are options for extended warranties.

For most cases, solar inverters can be upgraded or expanded to meet changing energy needs. However, it is advisable to consult with an expert to ensure that the upgrade is possible for your specific system.

Solar inverters typically require minimal maintenance. Regular monitoring of operation, cleaning of ventilation openings, and monitoring of indicators on the display can be part of routine maintenance.

A solar inverter is usually connected to the electrical grid through an appropriate connection point, and the process typically requires the expertise of an electrical installation professional to ensure a reliable and proper connection.

In most cases, the solar system will not work when there is no sunlight or when the light level is very low. However, there are hybrid inverters that can utilize additional energy sources, such as batteries, to maintain the operation of the solar system even without sunlight.

Solar battery systems are technology that enables the storage of electrical energy produced by solar panels. These batteries are charged during the day with solar energy, which is converted into electrical energy via the inverter, and they are used to power electrical devices when sunlight is not available (during the night or on cloudy days).

Solar battery systems allow the storage of excess electrical energy for use at a later time, reducing dependence on the grid. They also provide backup power in case of power outages and can reduce overall electricity costs over time.

The duration of electricity supply from solar battery systems depends on the battery capacity and the power consumption of the devices being powered. Smaller systems can provide a few hours of power, while larger systems can provide energy throughout the day or even multiple days.

A solar battery can be a useful option for homes that use solar energy and want to store excess generated energy for later use or for backup power during outages. It is recommended to consult with a solar system expert to determine the best option for your specific needs.

The prices of solar battery systems vary depending on the battery capacity and quality. While they may have an initial cost, they can bring long-term savings on electricity bills. Other factors to consider are the availability of state subsidies or tax incentives for renewable energy sources.

Solar battery systems require minimal maintenance. Regular monitoring of the battery and system condition can be helpful to ensure optimal performance. It is also important to follow the manufacturer’s instructions for cleaning and maintaining the battery.

The installation of solar panels has certain drawbacks to consider, such as the initial installation costs, dependency on sunlight, and the required surface area for installation. However, it is important to note that a solar program is a long-term cost-effective investment, and technology is constantly advancing to address any potential system weaknesses.

Solar panels do not contain toxic elements and are completely safe for installation and maintenance.

Combination solar thermal panels have a fluid within them that heats up and is sent back to the house for various heating purposes. After the heat transfer, cooler fluid returns to the panel, effectively cooling it. Another option (for ground-mounted solar panels, not on the roof) is to raise the panels slightly higher and cultivate shade-tolerant plants beneath them. The evaporation from the plants helps cool the panels.

Prosuming is a system that allows users to install solar panels on the roofs of their buildings with a maximum capacity equal to the installed power in the building. The excess energy generated during the summer would be consumed during the winter, so theoretically, the user would only pay for the associated costs and not for the electricity itself.

Firstly, nuclear power plants. In terms of worldwide utilization and the number of malfunctions, modern nuclear power plants are among the safest power plants in the world. However, Serbia currently does not have enough funds to cooperate with neighboring countries, so nuclear power plants are not expected in the near future. Gas power plants offer the advantage of a constant gas supply and easy power balancing, but the price of gas can unpredictably rise. Additionally, gas power plants generate excess heat, which is beneficial in winter but not in summer. Reversible power plants involve two lakes (upper and lower). When electricity is cheap (during the day/summer), pumps transport water from the lower lake to the upper lake, and when electricity is expensive or insufficient, water is transported via turbines using gravity to generate electricity. Serbia currently has only two reversible power plants, one in Perucac and the other in Bajina Basta, which is insufficient. The Djerdap 3 project with a capacity of 2400 MW and the Bistrica project with a capacity of 680 MW are currently in progress. The Djerdap project involves investments in the billions, while Bistrica is around 0.5 billion. Once Djerdap and Bistrica become operational, true prosuming will be achieved. As for wind power plants, a wide range of technologies and sizes are currently used in Europe. The most common are horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWT) with horizontally positioned rotor shafts. These wind turbines can have large capacities and can be installed onshore or offshore. Europe is known for many large onshore wind farms as well as pioneering offshore wind projects. In addition to HAWT, there is an alternative in the form of vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT) with vertically positioned rotor shafts. Although less common, vertical wind turbines are popular in smaller urban environments due to their aesthetics and flexibility in installation. Serbia has significant potential for wind energy development due to favorable wind resources. In recent years, the country has made efforts to promote wind power as part of its strategy to diversify the energy mix and increase the share of renewable energy sources. Currently, there are wind power plants of various capacities in Serbia that are either built or under construction. Some of the larger projects include the 158 MW Čibuk 1 wind farm, the 104.5 MW Kovačica wind farm, and the 42 MW Alibunar wind farm.



Folder IDR MSE AC – Electrical Project

Confirmation of compliance of the buyer-producer’s installation with connection conditions

Statement on island operation protection in the inverter

Statement of compliance with parameters

Statement that the installation was done in accordance with the project documentation

Catalog data for the inverter

Declaration of compliance for the inverter

Connection to the distribution network, which can be single-phase or three-phase

Statement of compliance with grid regulations

Reports on tests conducted by the Institute

License of responsible contractor

Appendix to the confirmation of characteristics, adjustment, and functional testing of protective devices

Appendix to the confirmation with inverter information

Request for adaptation

Proof of fee payment

Payments: Fee of approximately 17k RSD + bidirectional meter fee of approximately 31.5k RSD + Installation testing report fee of 17k – 30k RSD, which amounts to approximately 700 EUR for obtaining prosumer status.

Sufficient daylight is enough for solar panels to generate power. As an example in Europe, Iceland has the highest number of solar panels per capita, even though it experiences partial darkness for several months.

If the roof starts leaking after the installation of solar panels, it is advisable to first contact a roofer. They are experts in roof repairs and maintenance, and can determine the cause of the leak and perform necessary repairs. If you suspect that the installation of solar panels is the cause of the leak, you can also contact the company or installer who conducted the installation.

They should be responsible for the proper installation and roof safety. It may be necessary to involve both a roofer and the solar panel installer to resolve the issue appropriately. It is important to act quickly in such situations to prevent further damage to the roof and minimize potential water-related problems.

It is important to act quickly in such situations to prevent further damage to the roof and minimize potential water-related problems.

The efficiency of solar water panels depends on several factors, including the system size, geographic location, tilt and orientation of the panels, as well as the amount of sunlight available during winter months. It is common for solar water panels to have lower efficiency during winter compared to summer months.

To heat a 500-liter water heater to 50 degrees Celsius in winter conditions, it would be necessary to have an adequate number of panels and a properly sized system that can provide sufficient hot water. The exact number of panels required can vary based on factors such as climate conditions, thermal insulation of the system, and hot water consumption.

For more precise information and an assessment specific to your case, consultation with a solar energy expert or a solar water system installer is recommended. They can analyze the characteristics of your property and provide appropriate information regarding the number of panels and system size needed to achieve the desired results.

When solar panels are installed on a building, the electricity provider (EPS) replaces the meter with a new “bidirectional” meter that records both consumption and production. Once a year, on April 1st, an annual assessment of the electricity produced and consumed is made based on that meter.